Page 53 Complete Your CE Test Online - Click Here Š Š Dellinger, R. P., Levy M. M., Rhodes, A., Annane, D., Gerlach, H., Opal, S., … Moreno, R. (2013). Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Critical Care Medicine, 41(2). 580–637. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827e83af Š Š Delves, P. J. (2017). Overview of the immune system. Merck Manual. Retrieved from http://www. overview-of-the-immune-system Š Š Eisa, N., Alraies, M. C., Alraiyes, A. H., & Bazerbachi, F. (2014). Do all hospitalized patients need stress ulcer prophylaxis? Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 81(1), 23–25. Retrieved from http:// ulcer-prophylaxis Š Š Ferrer, R., Martin-Loeches, I., Phillips, G., Osborne, T. M., Townsend, S., Dellinger, R. P., … Levy, M. M. (2014). Empiric antibiotic treatment reduces mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock from the first hour: Results from a guideline-based performance improvement program. Critical Care Medicine, 42(8), 1749–1755. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000330 Š Š Finfer S., Blair D., Bellomo R., … Ronco, J. J. (2009). Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(13), 1283–1297. doi: 10.1056/ NEJMoa0810625 Š Š Foxman, B., & Brown, P. (2003). Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: Transmission and risk factors, incidence, and costs. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 17(2), 227–241. doi: http:// Š Š Foxx, R. (2016). Lymphocytopenia (Low lymphocyte count). Retrieved from http://www. Š Š Freund, Y., Lemachatti, N., Krastinova, E., Van Laer, M., Claessens, Y., Avondo, A., … Beaune, S. (2017). Prognostic accuracy of Sepsis-3 criteria for in-hospital mortality among patients with suspected infection presenting to the emergency department. JAMA, 317(3), 301–308. doi:10.1001/ jama.2016.20329 Š Š Friedrich, M., (2016). Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Medscape. Retrieved from http:// Š Š Fry, A. M., Shay, D. K., Holman, R. C., Curns, A. T., & Anderson, L. J. (2005). Trends in hospitalizations for pneumonia among persons aged 65 years or older in the United States, 1988– 2002. JAMA, 294(21), 2712–2719. doi: Š Š Gaieski, D. F., & Mikkelsen, M. E. (2016). Definition, classification, etiology, and pathophysiology of shock in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved from classification-etiology-and-pathophysiology-of-shock-in-adults?source=search_result&search=shock s&selectedTitle=1~150 Š Š Gauer, R. L. (2013). Early recognition and management of sepsis in adults: The first six hours. American Family Physician, 88(1), 44–53. Š Š Gennari, C. (2001). Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public Health Nutrition, 4(2B), 547–559. doi: 10.1079/PHN2001140 Š Š Gerdhem, P., Ringsberg K. A., Obrant, K. J., & Akesson, K. (2005). Association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, physical activity, muscle strength and fractures in the prospective population-based OPRA Study of Elderly Women. Osteoporosis International, 16(11), 1425–1431. doi: https://dx.doi. org/10.1007/s00198-005-1860-1 Š Š German Sepsis Society. (n.d.). Sepsis history. Retrieved from Englisch/Disease+pattern+of+Sepsis/Sepsis+History?sid=c7LtKgPZMy8MPKfuPqTGj0&iid=2 Accessed 1/12/17 Š Š Gheorghiţă, V., Barbu, A. E., Gheorghiu, M. L., & Căruntu, F. A. (2015). Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: A beneficial or deleterious host response? Germs, 5(1), 17–25. germs.2015.1067 Š Š Glickman, S. W., Cairns, C. B., Otero, R. M., Woods, C. W., Tsalik, E. L., Langley, R. J., … Rivers, E. P. (2010). Disease progression in hemodynamically stable patients presenting to the emergency department with sepsis. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 17(4), 383–390. doi: Š Š Gomolin I. H., Aung M. M., Wolf-Klein G., & Auerbach C. (2005). Older is colder: Temperature range and variation in older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(12), 2170–2172. doi: Š Š Gunatilake, R. P., & Perlow, J. H. (2011). Obesity and pregnancy: Clinical management of the obese gravida. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 204(2), 106–119. doi: 10.1016/j. ajog.2010.10.002 Š Š Gupta, S., Sakhuja, A., Kumar, G., McGrath, E., Nanchal, R., & Kashani, K. (2016). Culture- negative severe sepsis: Nationwide trends and outcomes. Chest, 150(6), 1251–1259. doi: 10.1016/j. chest.2016.08.1460 Š Š HCUP-AHRQ. (2009). Septicemia in US hospitals 2009. Retrieved from https://www.hcup-us.ahrq. gov/reports/statbriefs/sb122.pdf Š Š Hirasawa, H., Oda, S., & Nakamura, M. (2009). Blood glucose control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15(33), 4132–4136. Š Š Hoen, B., Alla, F., Selton-Suty, C., Beguinot, I., Bouvet, A., Briancon, S., … Vandenesch, F. (2002). Changing profile of infective endocarditis: Results of a 1-year survey in France. JAMA, 288(1), 75–81. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.1.75 Š Š Hoffman, M. K., & Sciscione, A. C. (2004). Sepsis and multisystem organ failure in a woman attempting interval delivery in a triplet pregnancy. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 49(5), 387–380. Š Š Howell, M. D., & Davis, A. M. (2017). Management of sepsis and septic shock. JAMA, 317(8), 847–848. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.0131 Š Š Hughes, S. F., Hendricks, B. D., Edwards, D. R., Maclean, K. M., Bastawrous, S. S., & Middleton, J. F. (2010). Total hip and knee replacement surgery results in changes in leukocyte and endothelial markers. Journal of Inflammation, 7(2). doi: Š Š Iwashyna, T. J., Ely, E. W., Smith, D. M., & Langa, K. M. (2010). Long-term cognitive impairment and functional disability among survivors of severe sepsis. JAMA, 304(16), 1787–1794. doi: http:// Š Š Iwashyna, T. J., Cooke, C. R., Wunsch, H., & Kahn, J. (2012). The population burden of long-term survivorship after severe sepsis among older Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(6), 1070–1077. doi; 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03989.x Š Š Jackson, M. L., Neuzil, K. M., Thompson, W. W., Shay, D. K., Yu, O., Hansen, C. K., & Jackson, L. A. (2004). The burden of community-acquired pneumonia in seniors: Results of a population-based study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39(11), 1642–1650. doi: Š Š Jaffer, U., Wade, R. G., & Gourlay, T. (2010). Cytokines in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome: A review. Intensive Care and Cardiovascular Anesthesia, 2(3), 161–175. Š Š Juthani-Mehta, M. (2007). Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection in older adults. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 23, 585–594. doi: Š Š Kawamoto, H., & Minato, N. (2004). Myeloid cells. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 36(8), 1374–1379. doi: Š Š Kelley, M. A. (2017). Predictive scoring units in the intensive care unit. UpToDate. Retrieved from Š Š Korošec Jagodič, H., Jagodič, K., & Podbregar, M. (2006). Long-term outcome and quality of life of patients treated in surgical intensive care: A comparison between sepsis and trauma. Critical Care, 10(5), R134. doi: Š Š Kupronis, B. A., Richards, C. L., Whitney, C. G., & the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. (2003), Invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults residing in long-term care facilities and in the community. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(11), 1520–1525. doi:10.1046/j.1532- 5415.2003.51501.x Š Š LaRosa, S. (2010). Sepsis. Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved from medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/infectious-disease/sepsis/#readings Š Š Latham, R., Lancaster, A. D., Covington, J. F., & Pirolo, J. S. (2001). The association of diabetes and glucose control with surgical-site infections among cardiothoracic surgery patients. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 22(10), 607–612. doi: Š Š Levy, M. M., Rhodes, A, Phillips, G. S., Townsend, S., Schorr, C., Beale, R., … Dellinger, R. P., (2014). The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Association between performance metrics and outcomes in a 7.5-year study. Intensive Care Medicine, 40(11), 1623–1633. doi:10.1007/s00134-014-3496-0 Š Š Liu, D., Su, L., Han, G., Yan, P., & Xie, L. (2015). Prognostic value of procalcitonin in adult patients with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 10(6). doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0129450 Š Š Liu, V., Escobar, G., Greene, J., Soule, J., Whippy, A., Angus, D. C., & Iwashyna, T. J. (2014). Hospital deaths in patients with sepsis from 2 independent cohorts. JAMA, 312(1), 90–92. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5804 Š Š Madhusudan, P., Vijayaraghavan, B. K., & Cove, M. E. (2014). Fluid resuscitation in sepsis: Reexamining the paradigm. BioMed Research International. doi: http://dx.doi. org/10.1155/2014/984082 Š Š Markiewski, M. M., DeAngelis, R. A., & Lambris, J. D. (2008). Complexity of complement activation in sepsis. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 12(6a), 2245–2254. doi: http://doi. org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00504.x Š Š Martin, G. S., Mannino, D. M., Eaton, S., & Moss, M. (2003). The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(16), 1546–1554. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa022139 Š Š Martin, G. S. (2012). Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: Changes in incidence, pathogens, and outcomes. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, 10(6), 701–706. doi: 10.1586/eri.12.50 Š Š Mayo Clinic. (n.d.) Sepsis. Retrieved from diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20169797 Š Š Mayr, F. B., Yende, S., & Angus, D. C. (2014). Epidemiology of severe sepsis. Virulence, 5(1), 4–11. doi: Š Š Mehta, Y., Gupta, A., Todi, S., Myatra, S., Samaddar, D. P., Patil, V., … Ramasubban, S. (2014). Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 18(3), 149–163. doi: Š Š Mikkelsen, M. E., Miltiades, A. N., Gaieski, D. F., Goyal, M., Fuchs, B. D., Shah, C. V., … Christie, J. D. (2009). Serum lactate is associated with mortality in severe sepsis independent of organ failure and shock. Critical Care Medicine, 37(5), 1670–1677. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819fcf68 Š Š Milaneschi, Y., Shardell, M., Corsi, A. M., Vazzana, R., Bandinelli, S., Guralnik, J. M., & Ferrucci, L. (2010). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and depressive symptoms in older women and men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(7), 3225–3233. doi: jc.2010-0347 Š Š Mody, L. (2017). Evaluation of infection in the older adult. UpToDate. Retrieved from https:// result&search=evaluation%20of%20infection&selectedTitle=1~150 Š Š Montan, S. (2007). Increased risk in the elderly parturient. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19(2), 110–112. doi: Š Š Moore, L. J., Jones, S. L., Kreiner, L. A., McKinley, B., Sucher, J. F., Todd, S. R., Turner, K. L., Valdivia, A., & Moore, A. K. (2009). Validation of a screening tool for the early identification of sepsis. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 66(6), 1539-1546. doi: TA.0b013e3181a3ac4b Š Š Mukherjee, S., Allen, R. M., Lukacs, N. W., Kunkel, S. L., & Carson, W. F. (2012). STAT3 mediated IL-17 production by post-septic T cells exacerbates viral immunopathology of the lung. Shock, 38(5), 515–523. doi: Š Š Naseem, E., Bazerbachi, F., Alraiyes, A., & Alraies, M. C. (2014). Do all hospitalized patients need stress ulcer prophylaxis? Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 81(1), 23–25. Š Š National Osteoporosis Foundation. (2015). Osteoporosis fast facts. Retrieved from wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Osteoporosis-Fast-Facts.pdf Š Š Nesseler, N., Launey, Y., Aninat, C., Morel, F., Malledant, Y., & Seguin, P. (2012). Clinical review: The liver in sepsis. Critical Care, 16(5), 235. doi: 10.1186/cc11381 Š Š Neviere, R. (2017). Pathophysiology of sepsis. UpToDate. Retrieved from contents/pathophysiology-of-sepsis?source=search_result&search=sepsis&selectedTitle=5~150 Š Š Neviere, R. (2017). Sepsis syndromes in adults: Epidemiology, definitions, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis. UpToDate. Retrieved from sepsis-syndromes-in-adults-epidemiology-definitions-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and- prognosis?source=search_result&search=sepsis-syndromes-in-adults-epidemiology-definitions- clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and%20prognosis&selectedTitle=1~150 Š Š Norman, D. C. (2000). Fever in the elderly. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 31(1), 148–151. doi: https:// Š Š O’Fallon, E., Schreiber, R., Kandel, R., & D’Agata, E. M. (2009). Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria at a long-term care facility: Assessment of residents, healthcare workers, and inanimate surfaces. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 30(12), 1172–1179. doi: 10.1086/648453 Š Š O’Brien, T. (2015). The cost of sepsis. CDC safe health care blog. Retrieved from https://blogs.cdc. gov/safehealth care/the-cost-of-sepsis/#ref Š Š Ogata, K., An, E., Shioi, Y., Nakamura, K., Luo, S., Yokose, N., Minami, S., & Dan, K. (2001). Association between natural killer cell activity and infection in immunologically normal elderly people. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 124(3), 392–397. doi:10.1046/j.1365- 2249.2001.01571.x Š Š O’Sullivan, B. P., & Kerrigan, S. W. (2015). Platelets, inflammation and respiratory disease: The non-thrombotic role of platelets in health and disease. doi: 10.5772/60569. Retrieved from http:// inflammation-and-respiratory-disease Š Š Pien, B. C., Sundaram, P., Raoof, N., Costa, S .F., Mirrett, S., Woods, C. W. … Weinstein, M.P. (2010). The clinical and prognostic importance of positive blood cultures in adults. The American Journal of Medicine, 123(9), 819–828. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.03.021 Š Š Plachouras, N., Sotiriadis, A., Dalkalitsis, N., Kontostolis, E., Xiropotamos, N., & Paraskevaidis, E. (2004). Fulminant sepsis after invasive prenatal diagnosis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 104(6), 1244–1247. doi: Š Š Pomerantz, W. J., & Weiss, S. L. (2016). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in children: Definitions, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved from sepsis-in-children-definitions-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?source=search_ result&search=sepsis%20viral&selectedTitle=1~150 Š Š Povoa, P. (2002). C-reactive protein: a valuable marker of sepsis. Intensive Care Medicine, 28, 235–243. doi:10.1007/s00134-002-1209-6