Page 52 Complete Your CE Test Online - Click Here UTIs can affect anyone but are more common in females. Those with indwelling catheters or those who self-catheterize are highly susceptible to developing UTIs. Bacteria can easily be introduced into the urinary tract after defecating, after having sex, or from unsanitary conditions. A urinary tract infection that leads to sepsis is known as urosepsis. ● ● Viral infections: Any viral infection can lead to sepsis, especially in those with weakened immune systems. Some of the more common viral infections include influenza, HIV, meningitis, and pneumonia. Resources A number of resources are available to the general public and health care providers to bring awareness to the number one cause of death from infection, sepsis. The following resources are useful for the public and for health care providers. ● ● Sepsis Alliance ( Sepsis Alliance is a charitable organization comprised of lay people and health care professionals dedicated to spreading awareness about sepsis. It was founded in 2007 by Dr. Carl Flatly, an endodontist, whose daughter Erin died of sepsis at age 23. The mission of Sepsis Alliance is to “save lives and reduce suffering by raising awareness of sepsis as a medical emergency.” ● ● Global Sepsis Alliance ( The Global Sepsis Alliance was started in 2010 to “elevate public, philanthropic, and governmental awareness and understanding of sepsis and to accelerate collaboration among researchers, clinicians, associated working groups, and those dedicated to supporting them.” The Global Sepsis Alliance started World Sepsis Day held annually on September 13 when activities take place globally to raise awareness of sepsis. ● ● Surviving Sepsis Campaign (http;// The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) was started in 2002. It is a collaboration of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. The SSC’s goal is to reduce mortality of sepsis by spreading awareness of sepsis and improving diagnosis and care of the patient with sepsis through guidelines of care and improvement performance programs. The SSC is a useful resource for health care professionals to stay informed on the latest news and expert recommendations and guidelines about sepsis and septic shock. ● ● The Rory Staunton Foundation ( The Rory Staunton Foundation was started in 2012 by the parents of a boy named Rory Staunton who died at the age of 12 from sepsis that resulted from a scrape on his arm. He was an otherwise healthy boy when he got the scrape on his arm on a Wednesday in gym class. By Sunday, he had died from sepsis. Although his parents took him to the pediatrician and later to the hospital, the diagnosis of sepsis was missed. His parents started the foundation to spread awareness of sepsis and reduce the number of deaths caused by sepsis through education and effective diagnosis and treatment, and to give those affected by sepsis a platform to share their story. ● ● National Institute of General Medical Sciences ● ● Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nursing consideration: Sepsis Awareness Month is September, a month-long concerted effort to spread awareness about sepsis, was started in 2011 by Sepsis Alliance. September 13 known as World Sepsis Day and was started by the Global Sepsis Alliance to bring people together worldwide in an effort to increase awareness. Mark your calendars, and spread the word about sepsis! Conclusion Sepsis is a challenging diagnosis that affects millions of people worldwide. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is a dysregulated progression of a sequence of events that starts with an infection, and through mechanisms not yet entirely understood, can end up rapidly progressing to multiple organ failure and death. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis can be the difference between life and death for patients. Nurses are at the forefront of patient care and in the position to make a difference in the prevention, recognition, and prompt treatment of sepsis. References Š Š Acosta, C. D., Kurinczuk, J. J., Lucas, D. N., Tuffnell, D. J., Sellers, S., Knight, M., & on behalf of the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System. (2014). Severe maternal sepsis in the UK, 2011–2012: A National Case-Control Study. PLoS Medicine, 11(7), e1001672. journal.pmed.1001672 Š Š Aitken, L. M., Williams, G., Harvey, M., Blot, S., Kleinpell, R., Labeau, S., … Ahrens, T. (2011). Nursing considerations to complement the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Critical Care Medicine, 39(7), 1800–1818. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31821867cc Š Š Al-Khafaji, A. H. (2016). Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in sepsis. Retrieved from http:// - a4http://emedicin Š Š Angus, D. C., & Van der Poll, T. (2013). Critical care medicine: Severe sepsis and septic shock. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(9), 840–851. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1208623 Š Š Angus, D. C., Zwirble, W. T., Lidicker, J., Clermont, G., Carcillo, J., & Pinsky, M. R. (2001). Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: Analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Critical Care Medicine, 29(7), 1303–1310. Retrieved from sites/default/files/ebm/critical_care_medicine_2001_angus.pdf Š Š Annane, D., Bellissant, E., Cavaillon, J. M., (2005). Septic shock. Lancet, 365, 63–78. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17667-8 Š Š Artero, A., Zaragoza, R., & Nogueira, J. M. (2012). Epidemiology of severe sepsis and septic shock. In R. Fernandez (Ed.), Severe sepsis and septic shock – Understanding a serious killer (pp. 3–24). Retrieved from serious-killer Š Š Azar, A, & Ballas, Z. K. (2017). Immune function in older adults. UpToDate. Retrieved from result&search=immune%20function%20in%20older%20adults&selectedTitle=1~150 Š Š Azzopardi, N., Fenech, M., & Piscopo, T. (2012). Sepsis, the liver and the gut. Sepsis – an ongoing and significant challenge. InTech. doi: 10.5772/49962. Retrieved from books/sepsis-an-ongoing-and-significant-challenge/sepsis-the-liver-and-the-gut Š Š Barton, J. R., & Sibai, B. M. (2012). Severe sepsis and septic shock in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 120(5), 689–706.
doi: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e318263a52d Š Š Bauer, M. E., Bateman, B. T., Bauer, S. T., Shanks, A. M., & Mhyre, J. M. (2013). Maternal sepsis mortality and morbidity during hospitalization for delivery: Temporal trends and independent associations for severe sepsis. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 117(4), 944–950. doi: 10.1213/ ANE.0b013e3182a009c3 Š Š Bente, D., Gren, J., Strong, J. E., & Feldmann, H. (2009). Disease modeling for Ebola and Marburg viruses. Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2(1–2), 12–17. doi: Š Š Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Willett, W. C., Staehelin, H. B., Bazemore, M.G., Zee, R. Y., & Wong, J. B. (2004). Effect of vitamin D on falls: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 291(16), 1999–2006. doi: Š Š Blomkalns, A. (2006). Lactate: A marker for sepsis and trauma. EMCREG-International, 43-49. Retrieved from Š Š Boomer, J. S., To, K., Chang, K. C., Takasu, O., Messr, D. F., Osborne, B. S., … Hotchkiss, R. S. (2011). Immunosuppression in patients who die of sepsis and multiple organ failure. JAMA, 306(23), 2594–2605. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1829 Š Š Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Sepsis questions and answers. Retrieved from Š Š Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: Recommendations of the health care infection control practices advisory committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. 2 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(RR-16), 1–45. Retrieved from Š Š Chakraborty, S. (2015). Do we need procalcitonin for sepsis? Clinical Laboratory News. Retrieved from Š Š Cohen, J. (2002). The immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Nature, 420, 885–891. doi:10.1038/nature01326 Š Š Danai, P. A., Sinha, S., Moss, M., Haber, M. J., & Martin, G. S. (2007). Seasonal variation in the epidemiology of sepsis. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 410–415. doi: 10.1097/01. CCM.0000253405.17038.43 Š Š De Backer, D., & Dorman T. (2017). Surviving sepsis guidelines: A continuous move toward better care of patients with sepsis. JAMA, 317(8), 807–808. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.0059 Š Š De Haro, C., Martin-Loeches, I., Torrents, E., & Artigas, A. (2013). Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Prevention and early recognition. Annals of Intensive Care, 3(11). Š Š de Pablo, R., Monserrat, J., Prieto, A., & Alvarez-Mon, M. (2014). Role of circulating lymphocytes in patients with sepsis. BioMed Research International, 2014 (7). doi: 10.1155/2014/671087 Š Š Delaloye, J., & Calandra, T. (2014). Invasive candidiasis as a cause of sepsis in the critically ill patient. Virulence, 5(1), 161–169.