Page 68 Complete Your CE Test Online - Click Here ● ● PSA test: This blood test, which is often done along with a digital rectal exam, is able to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. However, expert groups no longer recommend routine PSA testing for most men because studies have shown that it has little or no effect on prostate cancer deaths and leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment (see “Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment”) [191]. ● ● Skin exams: Doctors often recommend that people who are at risk for skin cancer examine their skin regularly or have a health care provider do so. Such exams have not been shown to decrease the risk of dying from skin cancer, and they may lead to overtreatment [191]. However, people should be aware of changes in their skin, such as a new mole or a change to an existing mole, and report these to doctors promptly. ● ● Transvaginal ultrasound: This imaging test, which can create pictures of the ovaries and uterus, is sometimes used in women who are at increased risk of ovarian cancer (because they carry a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation) or of endometrial cancer (because they have a condition called Lynch syndrome). But it has not been proven to reduce deaths from either cancer [191]. Other types of cancer screening not recommended for the general population Ovarian cancer screening: At this time, studies are not promising for screening the general population for ovarian cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has set up a plan to evaluate the evidence for ovarian cancer screening methods as of March 2016 [291]. The American Cancer Society has no recommendations for ovarian cancer screenings (see information above regarding CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasounds). Prostate cancer screening: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against PSA use for prostate cancer screening [293]. It has no current guidelines to screen for prostate cancer. They are revisiting the topic of prostate cancer screening guidelines now (March 2016) [287]. The American Cancer Society recommends that asymptomatic men receive information about the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of prostate cancer screening. This information should be provided to average-risk men with a life expectancy at least ten years who are 50 years and older, or at earlier ages for men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Screening should not take place without informed decision-making [304]. CANCER PREVENTION AND RISK REDUCTION Skin cancer prevention and risk reduction Because we know that UV rays cause cancer, nurses can counsel patients to avoid tanning beds, cover their skin and eyes (including hats and UV-blocking sunglasses), and seek shade, especially when outside during the times of day when UV rays are strongest. This is usually between the hours of 10AM and 4PM. Encourage patients to learn about their local “UV index” which describes on a numeric scale how strong UV radiation is in a particular area on specific dates. The daily UV index for an area can be found online, in some weather forecasts, or via an “app” for smart phones from the Weather Channel, among others (see “Resources for Patients”). Different skin types are at different risks It is important to let patients and families know, that despite the risk strata, people with darker skin can also get skin cancer and that UV exposure increases that risk. Information about UV index can be an important tool for everyone, but patients who are most susceptible to skin cancer should be given repeated counseling regarding the topic. People who spend a lot of time outdoors, those with a family history of skin cancer, and those who have had blistering sunburns in the past should avoid such exposures in the future (see also “Ultraviolet Radiation” in “Risk Factors” section). The Canadian Dermatology Association uses the Fizpatrick skin type classification to help stratify skin cancer risk. Skin can be classified from Type-1 to Type-6, depending on genetic disposition, reaction to sun exposure, and tanning habits. Type-1 and Type-2 are at the greatest risk of skin cancer. Although there are more details to determine exactly who fits into which category, here is a general description of the skin types (skin color refers to unexposed skin) [58, 256]: ● ● Type I: Always burns, blisters and peels, never tans; light reddish skin; freckles easily. ● ● Type II: Usually burns and peels, and then tans; very pale skin; some freckling. ● ● Type III: May burn and peel, but tans well; pale with beige tint; may have a few freckles. ● ● Type IV: Rarely burns and tans well; light brown skin. ● ● Type V: Very rarely burns, tans easily, brown skin. ● ● Type VI: Very rarely burns, tans easily, very dark skin. When UV exposure is unavoidable and other measures are unacceptable, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen of SPF 30 might help reduce the risk of DNA damage in the skin as well as reduce the risk of sunburn [300]. Sunscreens are often applied too sparingly and may come off with sweating, so remind people to use a “palm-full” and to re-apply every two hours while in the sun. An interesting point here is that, although some groups strongly recommend it, the National Cancer Institute reports that the evidence for sunscreens protecting against skin cancer is still less than adequate, in part because of the years of follow-up required to show differences, problems with reporting, and other influences on skin cancer risk [147]. In the U.S., broad-spectrum sunscreen has been around a much shorter time than the older, less protective types, so there has been less time to study it. Colorectal cancer prevention Screening with colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy finds precancerous lesions that can be removed, and as such, serves dual role for prevention and screening. Every year or two, reports pop up that aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. Keeping in mind the limitations of these studies, and the fact that the news reports rarely mention dose requirements or the harms of long-term aspirin use, it is understandable that people are interested in this as a possible method of cancer prevention. The USPSTF did a thorough review of evidence on the effects of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. They looked at the efficacy of aspirin and NSAIDs in reducing CRC, adenomatous polyps, and cancer incidence. They also looked at mortality, including the dose-dependent effects and harms linked to aspirin and NSAID use in healthy adults. The USPSTF concluded that short-term aspirin does not reduce CRC incidence, but found some evidence that long-term use of higher-dose aspirin (in the range of 300-325mg per day) and NSAIDs are linked with lower CRC incidence. For example, looking at the long-term Nurses’ Health Study, the USPSTF reported that those who took more than 14 aspirin tablets (325mg tabs) a week for more than ten years had a CRC risk of about half what would have been expected. They also found that aspirin and NSAIDs reduce colorectal adenomas, especially at the higher doses. It is possible that high-dose aspirin could reduce CRC deaths, but most of the studies were not able to show that. Even the Nurses’ Health Study did not show a reduction in