Complete Your CE Test Online - Click Here ● ● Becomes pregnant or contracts a venereal disease, particularly if under age 14. ● ● Runs away. ● ● Reports sexual abuse by a parent or another adult caregiver. ● ● Attaches very quickly to strangers or new adults in their environment. Types of child abuse: ● ● Causing sexual abuse or exploitation of a child through any act or failure to act. ● ● Leaving a child unsupervised with an individual, other than the child’s parent, who the actor knows or reasonably should have known: ○ ○ Is required to register as a Tier II or Tier III sexual offender under 42 Pa.C.S. Ch. 97 Subch. H (relating to registration of sexual offenders), where the victim of the sexual offense was under 18 years of age when the crime was committed. ○ ○ Has been determined to be a sexually violent predator under 42 Pa.C.S. § 9799.24 (relating to assessments) or any of its predecessors. ○ ○ Has been determined to be a sexually violent delinquent child as defined in 42 Pa.C.S. § 9799.12 (relating to definitions). Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the parent or other adult caregiver: ● ● Is unduly protective of the child or severely limits the child’s contact with other children, especially of the opposite sex. ● ● Is secretive and isolated. ● ● Is jealous or controlling with family members. Signs of emotional maltreatment Consider the possibility of emotional maltreatment when the child: ● ● Shows extremes in behavior, such as overly compliant or demanding behavior, extreme passivity, or aggression. ● ● Is either inappropriately adult (e.g., parenting other children) or inappropriately infantile (e.g., frequently rocking or head- banging). ● ● Is delayed in physical or emotional development. ● ● Has attempted suicide. ● ● Reports a lack of attachment to the parent. Types of child abuse: ● ● Causing or substantially contributing to serious mental injury to a child through any act or failure to act or a series of such acts or failures to act. Childhood is a time of enormous growth and development. Hagele (2005) noted that child maltreatment—including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; neglect; and exposure to domestic violence— represents an extreme traumatic insult to the developing child. Specifically, maltreatment results in disruption of the bond between child and caregiver, and it causes upregulation of the biological stress response system. Chronic traumatic exposure may then lead to persistent changes in brain structure and chemistry. Research suggests that these biological alterations contribute to long-term physical, emotional, behavioral, developmental, social, and cognitive dysfunction seen in adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Physical development Injuries due to abuse can cause permanent physical disability or even death. One example includes shaking a baby or child, which can result in brain injury equal to that caused by a direct blow to the head and may lead to spinal cord injuries with subsequent paralysis. Types of child abuse: ● ● Forcefully shaking a child under one year of age. ● ● Forcefully slapping or otherwise striking a child under one year of age. ● ● Interfering with the breathing of a child. Medical neglect Medical neglect, as in withholding treatment for treatable conditions, can lead to permanent physical disabilities such as hearing loss from untreated ear infections, vision problems from untreated strabismus (crossing of the eyes), respiratory damage from pneumonia or chronic bronchitis. Types of child abuse: ● ● Causing bodily injury to a child through any recent act or failure to act. ● ● Fabricating, feigning or intentionally exaggerating or inducing a medical symptom or disease which results in a potentially harmful medical evaluation or treatment to the child through any recent act. ● ● Causing serious physical neglect of a child. Neglected infants and toddlers Neglected infants and toddlers often have poor muscle tone and motor control, exhibit delays in gross and fine motor development and coordination, and fail to develop and perfect basic motor skills. Types of child abuse: ● ● Unreasonably restraining or confining a child, based on consideration of the method, location or the duration of the restraint or confinement. ● ● Forcefully shaking a child under one year of age. ● ● Forcefully slapping or otherwise striking a child under one year of age. ● ● Interfering with the breathing of a child. Cognitive development ● ● Absence of stimulation. ● ● Interferes with the growth and development of the brain and can result in generalized cognitive delay or mental retardation. ● ● Language and speech delays. Abused and neglected toddlers typically exhibit language and speech delays. They fail to use language to communicate with others. Some do not talk at all. This cognitive delay can also affect social development, including the development of peer relationships. Types of child abuse: ● ● Unreasonably restraining or confining a child, based on consideration of the method, location or the duration of the restraint or confinement. ● ● Forcefully shaking a child under one year of age. nursing.elitecme.com Page 13