Page 104 Complete Your CE Test Online - Click Here arrhythmias, or stroke. It can also cause dangerous interactions with other medications[41,42,3,44] . The FDA warns consumers not to purchase or use the following products because they contain sibutramine: ● ● Jimpness Beauty Fat Loss capsules. ● ● Super Slim. ● ● Diet Master. Seeking and using quick weight loss scam products is only one of several common mistakes people who want and need to lose weight make. According to an online article from Psychology Today, here are the 10 biggest mistakes people who want to lose weight can make[45] : ● ● Failing to incorporate exercise into their lifestyle behaviors. (Lifelong health behaviors are necessary to lose weight and not gain it back.) ● ● Underestimating the effort it takes to lose weight. (There is no quick fix to weight problems. It takes a lot of work.) ● ● Failing to make weight loss a priority. (Weight loss is not a casual undertaking. It needs to be a priority.) ● ● Blaming oneself for weight loss struggles. (Some people may believe that if they are not losing weight fast enough or that, if they gain back a few pounds, they are hopeless. Don’t be so hard on yourself!) ● ● Diagnosing self with rare conditions if weight loss does not occur quickly. (Some people convince themselves that they are seriously ill or that they can never lose weight because of some unknown “condition.” Patience is required.) ● ● Failing to take steps to control stress. (Many people eat when they are stressed. Dieting is an added stressor. Learn coping strategies to deal with stress.) ● ● Underestimating how much is being eaten every day. (Dieters need to honestly evaluate what and how much they eat.) ● ● Skipping meals. (Not eating for long periods of time makes it more likely that when someone finally does eat, he/she will eat many more calories than if they would have eaten at normal intervals.) ● ● Depending on fad diets. (As previously mentioned, fad diets and weight loss products seldom produce long-term results and can be dangerous.) Weight loss surgery Surgery as a means of treating obesity is becoming more popular. This is especially true for those persons for whom healthy diet, exercise, and other positive lifestyle changes did not help to lose enough weight[46] . Weight loss surgery, also referred to as bariatric surgery, is not for everyone. Prior to such surgery, complete physical and mental health examinations are conducted. Weight loss surgery requires permanent lifestyle changes. Such surgery can help reduce the risk of some weight-related problems such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and sleep apnea. There are also potential significant risks and complications of weight loss surgery[46] . Guidelines for weight loss surgery vary, but such surgery is generally considered when the BMI is 40 or higher and a life-threatening or disabling condition exists that is related to being overweight[46] . General guidelines may include may include that clients[6,47] : ● ● Have a BMI over 40, which means about 100 pounds overweight or 200% of one’s ideal body weight. ● ● Have a BMI between 35 to 40 with at least one obesity-related medical condition. ● ● Cannot achieve a long-term weight loss by diet and exercise initiatives alone. ● ● Are committed to lifelong lifestyle changes. ● ● Are committed to long-term follow-up medical care. When evaluating clients for weight loss surgery, the following issues are considered[46] : ● ● Nutrition and weight history: The healthcare team reviews trends, diet efforts, eating habits, exercise regimen, stress level, time constraints, and motivation. ● ● Current medical condition: General health status is evaluated. Some conditions such as heart disease increase surgical risks. Smoking and alcohol histories are obtained. ● ● Mental health status: Some mental health conditions may make it more difficult for clients to make necessary lifelong lifestyle changes. These include binge-eating disorder, substance abuse, depression, and anxiety disorders. ● ● Motivation: Willingness and ability to adhere to lifestyle changes are assessed. ● ● Age: Risks increase with age, and weight loss surgery is controversial in persons under the age of 18. It is important that clients understand both the benefits and risks of weight loss surgery. The benefits include[49] : ● ● Weight loss that usually occurs rapidly and continues for about 18 to 24 months after the surgery. Most clients do start to regain some of the lost weight, but few clients regain all of it. ● ● Conditions related to obesity, such as diabetes or hypertension, generally improve. Nursing consideration: Clients who have had weight loss surgery require life-long diet and exercise modifications as well as vitamin and mineral supplements. This generally means that long-term follow-up is necessary[46,49,50] . There are risks associated with the surgical procedure itself. These include[44] : ● ● Infection. ● ● Hemorrhage. ● ● Blood clots. ● ● Respiratory distress. ● ● Reactions to anesthesia. ● ● Death (rarely). Long-term risks following weight loss surgery include[49,51] : ● ● Dumping syndrome: Dumping syndrome is caused by malabsorptive surgery and occurs when stomach contents move too swiftly through the small intestine. After eating, the client experiences nausea, sweating, weakness, faintness, and, at times, diarrhea. The client is unable to eat sweets without becoming terribly weak. ● ● Vomiting: Vomiting is a common risk after restrictive surgery. This happens when the stomach is over-stretched by food that has not been thoroughly chewed. ● ● Nutrition deficiencies: Clients may develop anemia, osteoporosis, and metabolic bone disease. In order to avoid these complications, clients must be careful to have the proper intake of vitamins and minerals. Clients may be advised by their healthcare providers to take vitamin and mineral supplements. ● ● Gallstones: Gallstones are a common side effect of weight loss surgery. In fact, more than 33% of clients develop gallstones after undergoing weight loss surgery. This complication may be prevented by having clients take bile salts for the first six months after surgery.