Complete Your CE Test Online - Click Here ● ● Participating in sexually explicit conversation either in person, by telephone, by computer or by a computer-aided device for the purpose of sexual stimulation or gratification of any individual. ● ● Actual or simulated sexual activity or nudity for the purpose of sexual stimulation or gratification of any individual. ● ● Actual or simulated sexual activity for the purpose of producing visual depiction, including photographing, videotaping, computer depicting or filming. This does not include consensual activities between a child who is 14 years of age or older and another person who is 14 years of age or older and whose age is within four years of the child’s age. 1. Any of the following offenses committed against a child: a. Rape as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3121. b. Statutory sexual assault as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3122.1. c. Involuntary deviate sexual intercourse as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3123. d. Sexual assault as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3124.1. e. Institutional sexual assault as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3124.2. f. Aggravated indecent assault as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3125. g. Indecent assault as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3126. h. Indecent exposure as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 3127. i. Incest as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 4302. j. Prostitution as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 5902. k. Sexual abuse as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 6312. l. Unlawful contact with a minor as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 6318. m. Sexual exploitation as defined in 18 Pa.C.S. § 6320. Sexual abuse includes sexual intercourse or its deviations. Yet all offenses that involve sexually touching a child, as well as non- touching offenses and sexual exploitation, are just as harmful and devastating to a child’s well-being (American Humane Association, 2014). According to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), an estimated 9.3 percent of confirmed or substantiated child abuse and neglect cases in 2005 involved sexual abuse (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007). This figure translates into over 83,800 victims in 2005 alone (USDHHS, 2007). Other studies suggest that even more children suffer abuse and neglect than is ever reported to child protective services agencies. Statistics indicate that girls are more frequently the victims of sexual abuse, but the number of boys is also significant. Touching sexual offenses include: ● ● Fondling. ● ● Making a child touch an adult’s sexual organs. ● ● Penetrating a child’s vagina or anus, no matter how slight, with a penis or any object that does not have a valid medical purpose. Non-touching sexual offenses include: ● ● Engaging in indecent exposure or exhibitionism. ● ● Exposing children to pornographic material. ● ● Deliberately exposing a child to the act of sexual intercourse. ● ● Masturbating in front of a child. Sexual exploitation can include: ● ● Engaging a child or soliciting a child for the purposes of prostitution. ● ● Using a child to film, photograph, or model pornography. Human trafficking From 2007 to September 2016, the National Human Trafficking Hotline (NHTH) received 3,052 calls from Pennsylvania; 688 calls were to report cases of human trafficking (Nationalities Service Center). In response, the Pennsylvania legislature passed Act 115 of 2016 amended Title 23 (Domestic Relations) and 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) of the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes have expanded to include human trafficking. When a child, under 18 years of age, is recruited and harbored for the purposes of sex, prostitution, pornography, exotic dancing, etc., and is being forced to work for little or no pay, it is considered to be labor trafficking. The victim is often threatened of serious harm, physical restraint or abuse of legal process if there is not compliance with the wishes of the perpetrator. Types of human trafficking ● ● Labor trafficking may force the victim to work (frequently in factories or farms) for little or no pay; domestic servitude to include providing services within a household from 10 to 16 hours doing such tasks as child care, cooking, cleaning, yard work and/ or gardening. ● ● Labor or services trafficking may include the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining a person for labor or services. There may be use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage (paying off a debt through work), debt bondage (debt slavery, bonded labor or services for a debt or other obligation), or slavery (a condition compared to that of a slave in respect of exhausting labor or restricted freedom). ● ● Commercial sex trafficking may include the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining a person for sexual services. This type of trafficking involves a commercial sex act that is induced by force, fraud, or coercion or in which the person under the age of 18 years of age is induced to perform such an act. Commercial sex act is any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person. Exclusions from child abuse per the CPSL Pennsylvania has identified scenarios that should not be considered to be child abuse. Pennsylvania statute § 6304 (Exclusions from child abuse) details those scenarios that have been excused from such a determination: ● ● Environmental factors. No child shall be deemed to be physically or mentally abused based on injuries that result solely from environmental factors, such as inadequate housing, furnishings, income, clothing, and medical care, which are beyond the control of the parent or person responsible for the child’s welfare with whom the child resides. This subsection shall not apply to any childcare service as defined in this chapter, excluding an adoptive parent. Example: If a family lives at the poverty level through no fault of the parents it is not considered child abuse. ● ● Practice of religious beliefs. If, upon investigation, the county agency determines that a child has not been provided needed medical or surgical care because of sincerely held religious beliefs of the child’s parents or relative within the third degree of consanguinity and with whom the child resides, which beliefs are consistent with those of a bona fide religion, the child shall not be deemed to be physically or mentally abused. (This is not applicable to child care services and not applicable if the failure to provide care results in the death of a child.) Example: If one’s religion does not believe in seeking medical attention for their child that has a cold this is not considered child abuse unless it results in the death of a child. Page 6 nursing.elitecme.com