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Advance for Nursing • January 2017

Table 3. Quick Reference for Answering Parent Questions 24 • ADVANCE FOR NURSING • January 2017 children and providers can create a safe environment, which assists in answering uncomfortable questions. Parents should feel comfortable asking questions and confident in the provider’s responses. The provider should remind parents of the efficacy and safety of the vaccine for both sexes and reinforce series completion. 16 For quick reference answers to parent questions, see Table 3. Studies have proven a marked decrease in the number of newly reported cervical cancer diagnoses due to HPV vaccination. As providers, we need to rally behind the promotion of HPV vaccination. Prevention of both cervical and oropharnygeal cancers has a monumental implication for both young men and women receiving and completing the HPV vaccination series. Closing the vaccination gap and meeting Healthy People 2020 benchmarks will bolster the decrease of cancer diagnosis. Providers must face the challenge of reluctant parents with facts and education about cancer prevention. We must take a stand against cancer-causing Human Papillomavirus. References 1. Haddad R. Human papillomavirus associated head and neck cancer. UpToDate. 2016. http:// www.uptodate.com/contents/human-papillomavirus-associated-head-and-neck-cancer. 2. Harriri S, Dunne E, Saraiya M, Unger E, Markowitz, L. Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine- Preventable Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/ chpt05-hpv.pdf. 3. Palefsky J. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections. UpToDate. 2016. http://www. uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-of-human-papillomavirus-infections. 4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human Papillomavirus. 2016. http://www. cdc.gov/hpv/index.html. 5. Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2009, Featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2013; 105(3): 175-201. 6. American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures 2015. http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/ content/@editorial/ documents/document/acspc-044552.pdf. 7. American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures 2016. http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/ content/@research/documents/ document/acspc047079.pdf. 8. Castle PE, Cox JT, Palefsky JM. 2016. Recommendations for the use of human papillomavirus vaccines. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/recommendations-for-the-useof human-papillomavirus-vaccines. 9. Lozza V, Pieralli A, Corioni S. et al. HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal cancer. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2014; 290(2): 375-379. 10. Stenson KM. Epidemiology and risk factors for head and neck cancer. UpToDate. 2015. http:// www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-head-and-neck-cancer. 11. Petrosky E, Bocchini JA, Hariri S, et al. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: Updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. MMRW Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2015; 64: 300-304. http:// www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6411.pdf. 12. Cutts FT, Franceschi S, Goldie S, et al. Human papillomavirus and HPV vaccines: a review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2007; 85: 649-732. http://www.who.int/bulletin/ volumes/85/9/06-038414/en/. 13. World Health Organization (WHO) Recommendations to assure the quality, safety, and efficacy of recombinant human papillomavirus virus-like particle vaccine. 2015. http:// www.who.int/biologicals/HPV_PostECBS_ZHOU_(CLEAN)_28102015.pdf?ua=1&ua=1. 14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2014 Sexually transmitted diseases surveillance. 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats14/other.htm#hpv. 15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among adolescent girls, 2007–2012, and postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring, 2006–2013 — United States. 2013. MMRW Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2013; 62: 591-595. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6229a4.htm. 16. Dunne EF. HPV Vaccine now recommended for boys and young men. Medscape. 2012. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/759820. Ashley Landers is a DNP student at the University of North Florida. Concerns Parents May Have Appropriate Responses From Provider What is HPV? HPV is a type of virus that may lead to cancer of the cervix, vagina, penis, mouth, throat, and anus. It is also the virus responsible for genital warts. How do you get HPV? It is spread by intimate sexual contact (vaginal, anal and oral). What are the symptoms of HPV? Many times HPV can be asymptomatic, while some strains lead to vaginal warts. HPV can be spread without symptoms. Why does my child need the HPV vaccine? HPV can cause cervical, vaginal, anal, head and neck, and penile cancer. Is the vaccine safe? Yes, the FDA has tested the safety of the vaccine on over 15,000 participants. What are the side effects? Side effects are similar to most vaccines. The most common are pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site that ranges from mild to moderate. Fever, headache, nausea, muscle or joint pain. How long is the vaccine good for? The vaccine has been shown to be effective for 8-10 years, according to the CDC. My child is not sexually active. Why does he/ she need it at such a young age? Children ages 9-15 showed a better immune response than those aged 16-26. Regardless of whether the child is sexually active or not, we want to provide protection before potential exposure to HPV. Why does my son need the HPV vaccine? HPV can cause cancer in the throat, penis and anus; and genital warts. Vaccinating boys can help prevent cancer, and also prevent the spread of HPV to current and future partners. What happens if we miss a dose? The provider should reinforce series completion. It is recommended to complete the series over a six-month period. However, even if months or years have passed since the last shot, the series should be completed, without having to start over. Oncology


Advance for Nursing • January 2017
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